The national culture is an amalgam of Hispanic and pre-Hispanic elements with three cultural traditions: Atsquare miles 1, square kilometersBolivia is the fifth largest country in South America. Bordering Peru and Chile to the west, Argentina and Paraguay to the south, and Brazil to the north and east, it is divided into nine political—administrative units called departments. There are three major geographic—ecological landscapes:
Since declaring independence on 20 July and achieving it inColombia has changed its name seven times. Regional cultural traditions are diverse, with a broad range of distinct groups that have unique customs, accents, social patterns, and cultural adaptations.
These groups are classified into three cultures: Only during elections, sporting events, and beauty pageants do the regional cultures unite for a common goal. Covering aboutsquare miles 1. Lowland coastal areas give way to rain forest, the Andes, and the Inland Ilanos plains.
Colombia is connected to Central America by the Isthmus of Panama. It contains several small islands in the Atlantic, including San Andrea and Providencia, and in the Pacific, the Malpelo and Gorgona islands have been set aside as natural wildlife reserves. Colombia borders Ecuador and Peru to the south, Brazil and Venezuela to the east, and Panama to the northwest.
The Atlantic or Caribbean coastal lowlands receive less rainfall than the area along the Pacific. Many industries are located within this area, along with 20 percent of the population. The fertile land supports banana and sugarcane plantations along with cattle ranches.
Lush rain forest and swamps characterize the Pacific lowlands. Because of the abundant rainfall and poor soil quality, few people inhabit this region. The three Andean Cordilleras mountain ranges running the entire length of the country from the north to the south, occupy only 30 percent of the landmass.
Most of the population lives in the inland Andean region, which begins along the Caribbean coast near Venezuela. Climatic effects are accentuated on the high elevations of these mountain ranges.
The hot zone is marked by heavy annual rainfall along the Pacific coast. The temperate zone, in which 40 percent of the population lives, has moderate rainfall and moderate temperatures.
The treeless regions adjacent to the cold zone usually are referred to as paramos high plainsabove which begin the nevados snowcapped peaks. The cold zone receives heavy rainfall during the wet seasons from April to June and September to December.
The northern end of this range is characterized by volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Despite the tectonic activity, almost 80 percent of the population lives in the Andeanregion. The highlands to the east of the Magdalena Valley include Cundinamarca, where Bogota, the capital, is located.
Set in the central range to the west of the Magdalena are two of the most important cities: Farther to the south in the Cauca Valley is Cali, the third largest city, which has some of the richest farmland.
This area contains some of the richest mineral deposits in the world, including gold and emeralds. Coffee plantations are plentiful in the mild climate, which also supports banana, cassava, and coca.
To the east of the Andes is the broad expanse of the Ilanos, which contains more than 60 percent of the land area.
The high plateau is striped with tributaries of the Amazon River and rain forest to the south. While few crops are grown in this hot, flat region, the grassland provides ample space to graze cattle.
Colombia has great biodiversity with 1, species of birds and over 13, species of plants. With a population of It is estimated that about 75 percent of the population is of mixed heritage, with 55 percent of this Colombia group being mestizos, 16 percent mulattoes, and 4 percent zambos.
The other 20 percent of the population is of European, African, or Indian ancestry. Caucasians, mainly descendants of Spaniards, constitute about 20 percent of the population.
Antioquia and the coffee region are considered "white" departments or states because of the reluctance of European settlers to mix with blacks or Indians. Black people represent about 4 percent of the total population and live primarily on the Caribbean coast, the historical center of the slave trade.
The Indian population, which is estimated to have been between 1. There are over fifty Indian groups, many of which live in relative isolation. The official language is Spanish, which was imposed during the colonial period.
All Colombians speak it except some of the indigenous populations in the Amazonian basin. In major cities, English is used, particularly by the upper class, but it is not commonly understood or spoken.
Outside urban areas, Spanish is virtually the only medium of communication. Colombia takes great care to preserve the linguistic "purity" of Castilian Spanish.Central American and northern Andean Indian: Central American and northern Andean Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting Central America (south from Guatemala) and the northern coast of South America, including the northern drainage of the Orinoco River; the West Indies are also customarily included.
Although the area has.
Andean peoples: Andean peoples, aboriginal inhabitants of the area of the Central Andes in South America. Although the Andes Mountains extend from Venezuela to the southern tip of the continent, it is conventional to call “Andean” only the people who were once part of .
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that developed from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to or the 'Cloud people', were an Andean civilization living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day northern Peru. National Geographic Research and Exploration.
March . The Mountains, dominated by the Andes mountain range, occupy 30% of the territory and are home to 36% of the population.
Most of the population – 52% – is concentrated on the coast, despite only occupying 11% of the national territory. The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. and the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor.
After the fall of the Inca Empire many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed, including their sophisticated farming system. "People generally have a very bleak outlook, and most are thinking on a very short time scale," says anthropologist Katherine Dunbar of the University of Georgia, who is doing doctoral research in.