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Italian Unification Summary The movement to unite Italy into one cultural and political entity was known as the Risorgimento literally, "resurgence". Giuseppe Mazzini and his leading pupil, Giuseppe Garibaldi, failed in their attempt to create an Italy united by democracy.
Garibaldi, supported by his legion of Red Shirts-- mostly young Italian democrats who used the revolutions as a opportunity for democratic uprising--failed in the face of the resurgence of conservative power in Europe.
However, it was the aristocratic politician named Camillo di Cavour who finally, using the tools of realpolitik, united Italy under the crown of Sardinia. Inas prime minister of Sardinia, he involved the kingdom on the British and French side of the Crimean War, using the peace conference to give international publicity to the cause of Italian unification.
Inhe formed an alliance with France, one that included a pledge of military support if necessary, against Austria, Italy's major obstacle to unification.
After a Cavour and realpolitik provocation of Vienna, Austria declared war against Sardinia in and was easily defeated by the French army. The peace, signed in November in Zurich, Switzerland, joined Lombardy, a formerly Austrian province, with Sardinia.
In return, France received Savoy and Nice from Italy--a small price to pay for paving the way to unification. Inspired by Cavour's success against Austria, revolutionary assemblies in the central Italian provinces of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and Romagna voted in favor of unification with Sardinia in the summer of In the spring ofGaribaldi came out of his self-imposed exile to lead a latter day Red Shirt army, known as the Thousand, in southern Italy.
By the end of the year, Garibaldi had liberated Sicily and Naples, which together made up the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Cavour, however, worried that Garibaldi, a democrat, was replacing Sardinia, a constitutional monarchy, as the unifier of Italy.
After securing important victories in these regions, Cavour organized plebiscites, or popular votes, to annex Naples to Sardinia. Garibaldi, outmaneuvered by the experienced realist Cavour, yielded his territories to Cavour in the name of Italian unification.
Reapolitik continued to work for the new Italian nation. The entire boot of Italy was united under one crown.
Commentary Why did Cavour succeed and Garibaldi fail? Was it really only a matter of speed? If Garibaldi had started his crusade earlier and had time to conquer the Papal State before Cavour sent his troops to do so, would Cavour have been forced to give up his territory in the name of a united Italy?
But is speed really the only issue? That, too, is doubtful. It seems that of the two, Cavour alone understood the relationship between national and international events, and was thus able to manipulate foreign policy for his own ends.
Garibaldi, a democrat, a warrior, and an anti-Catholic, was without question on the road to conflict with the monarchies of Europe. Cavour, with the added credibility of representing a monarch, blended perfectly with the political situation in Europe at the time. Cavour was a realist who practice realistic politics.
He allied with France when necessary and with France's key enemy, Prussia, was necessary. By keeping the goal in mind, Cavour used international power to achieve his domestic goals.
Garibaldi was forced to use his own grassroots strength, empowered by young Italian democrats interested in an idealistic future for their nation. In that manner, it is quite doubtful that Garibaldi would have ever been able to gain the upper hand in Italy, relative to Cavour.The emergence of the industrial state Political patterns.
During the second half of the 19th century, politics and socioeconomic conditions became increasingly intertwined in Europe, producing a new definition of government functions, including a greatly expanded state and a new political spectrum. German Unification () Summary Whereas Camillo di Cavour directed Italian unification, a Junker (the Prussian name for an aristocratic landowner from old Prussia in the east) named Otto von Bismarck pushed German unification through "blood and iron" and skillful understanding of realpolitik.
Cavour was another major advocate for Realpolitik, Cavour involved the kingdom on the British and French side of the Crimean War, using a peace conference to give international publicity to the cause of Italian unification.
Works by or about Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour at Internet Archive Wikimedia Commons has media related to Count Camillo Benso di Cavour. Wikisource has original works written by or about.
SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present. Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany. Introduction. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).
Napoleon III agreed to help Cavour in planning Piedmont’s war against Austria - Cavour and Realpolitik introduction. The Emperor wanted to drive the Austrians out of Italy once and for all but did not want a revolution because then he would not end up as the legal sovereign of the richest and most powerful half.