Woman and Mankind Author's Preface This book is an attempt to place the relations of Sex in a new and decisive light. It is an attempt not to collect the greatest possible number of distinguishing characters, or to arrange into a system all the results of scientific measuring and experiment, but to refer to a single principle the whole contrast between man and woman. In this respect the book differs from all other works on the same subject. It does not linger over this or that detail, but presses on to its ultimate goal; it does not heap investigation on investigation, but combines the psychical differences between the sexes into a system; it deals not with women, but with woman.
Parental care[ edit ] Parental investment theory is a branch of life history theory. The earliest consideration of parental investment is given by Ronald Fisher in his book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection wherein Fisher argued that parental expenditure on both sexes of offspring should be equal.
Clutton-Brock expanded the concept of PI to include costs to any other component of parental fitness.
A cellar spider defending spiderlings. Individuals are limited in the degree to which they can devote time and resources to producing and raising their young, and such expenditure may also be detrimental to their future condition, survival, and further reproductive output.
However, such expenditure is typically beneficial to the offspring, enhancing their condition, survival, and reproductive success.
These differences may lead to parent-offspring conflict. Parental investment can be provided by the female female uniparental carethe male male uniparental careor both biparental care. Parents are naturally selected to maximize the difference between the benefits and the costs, and parental care will tend to exist when the benefits are substantially greater than the costs.
Penguins are a prime example of a species that drastically sacrifices their own health and well-being in exchange for the survival of their offspring.
This behavior, one that does not necessarily benefit the individual, but the genetic code from which the individual arises, can be seen in the King Penguin. Although some animals do exhibit altruistic behaviors towards individuals that are not of direct relation, many of these behaviors appear mostly in parent-offspring relationships.
While breeding, males remain in a fasting-period at the breeding site for five weeks, waiting for the female to return for her own incubation shift.
However, during this time period, males may decide to abandon their egg if the female is delayed in her return to the breeding grounds. But there comes a point where the male penguin's costs become too high in comparison to the gain of a successful breeding season.
Olof Olsson investigated the correlation between how many experiences in breeding an individual has and the duration an individual will wait until abandoning his egg.
He proposed that the more experienced the individual, the better that individual will be at replenishing his exhausted body reserves, allowing him to remain at the egg for a longer period of time.
The maternal-offspring conflict has also been studied in animals species and humans. Eipo women of West New Guinea gave birth outside of the village homes. Following the birth of their child, each woman weighed whether or not she should keep the child or leave the child in the brush nearby, leaving it to die .
Likelihood of survival and availability of resources within the village were factors that played into the decision of keeping the child. During one birth, the mother felt the child was too ill and would not survive, so she wrapped the child up, preparing to leave the child in the brush.
However, after seeing the child moving, the mother unwrapped the child and brought it into the village . This conflict between the mother and the child resulted in detachment behaviors in Brazil.
While studying migrants in an impoverished rural area, Nancy Scheper-Huhges witnessed high rates of infant mortality, which was accepted by the mothers in the area.Cheating is widely believed as a one-way ticket to failure, but science has shown it can actually enhance our goal pursuit when applied correctly.
I will show you how to leverage the science to optimize success and increase probability of attaining your goals. Keywords: anger, cheating behavior, performance pressure, self-serving cognitions More and more, employees are lying, scamming, and deceiving to advance their interests.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, – Whitty, M. T. (). Pushing the wrong buttons: Men’s and women’s attitudes toward online and offline infidelity.
After the Affair, Updated Second Edition: Healing the Pain and Rebuilding Trust When a Partner Has Been Unfaithful - Kindle edition by Janis A.
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How Unfaithful Applied to Psychology Essay Psychoanalytic theory is probably known to be the origin of any other psychological theories in the science field of Psychology. It consists of unique views, developed by psychologist Sigmund Freud, that captures the attention of all people worldwide.
Social psychology is a branch of psychology concerned with how social phenomena influence us and how people interact with others. Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.