The APA determines the proper guidelines for APA style, which is typically taught to undergraduate and graduate level psychology students; however, it is sometimes used in other courses as well. An integrative paper is a way for a student to show his current opinion regarding a certain subject matter at the present point in time. The integrative paper should contain the use of the word "I" frequently throughout the writing.
Over the past couple of decades, theories of crime and punishment have blossomed in their diversity. At worst, these analyses are very inadequate as they typically ignore more factors than they consider. Like theories in general which have diversified in kind and approach, the same has been true of integrative theories, perhaps more so.
What makes integrative theories especially appealing is that the diversification of models is liberating to the extent that they allow for a creative plurality of knowledge based frameworks.
This is the case, both within and across disciplinary boundaries, as well as within and across modernist and postmodernist modes of thought. At the same time, some integrative theories focus on criminal behavior and criminal activity, others focus on punishment and crime control, still other focus on crime, justice, and social control.
Moreover, some integrative theories are formalistic and consist of propositional statements stemming from two or more theories usually within the same discipline; other integrative models or theories are less formalistic and consist of conceptualizing the reciprocal or interactive relations between various levels of human motivation, social organization, and structural relationships.
Ways of Seeing Integration Just as there are multiple ways of doing theory, or of building simple, one-dimensional models of crime production, there are, even more ways of constructing complex models of criminal behavior or of integrating criminologies. Despite this abstract agreement on the meaning of integration, actual approaches to integration vary significantly.
In other words, the ways of seeing or constituting criminological integration differ in both theory and practice.
Nevertheless, much of the impetus for integration in criminology, at least early on, beginning in the s, was grounded in the disciplines of psychology or sociology, and occasionally from the perspective of social psychology.
For example, the criminological literature on theoretical integration reveals a strong reliance on learning and control theories, a weaker reliance on strain theory, followed closely by subcultural, conflict, and Marxist theories.
These sociological biases at work in criminological integration have traditionally marginalized theories and models of biology, evolution, history, gender, communication, economics, and law.
In contrast to the more sociologically- and psychologically-based positivist and modern stances toward integration, are the eclectically-based constructivist and postmodern stances toward integration. Both modernist and postmodernist approaches to integrative theories can be broken down further into a variety of explanations of crime and punishment.
Moreover, integrative or integrated theories, may be specific or general. Whereas the specific integrated theories have focused on a single form of criminality, such as rape or battering, the general integrated theories have attempted to make sense out of a relativley broad or inclusive range of harmful activities, including interpersonal, organizational, and structural forms.
Whether these attempts at integration have been modernist or postmodernist, some have confined themselves to criminality while others have focused more broadly on deviance and non-conformity. Finally, modernist forms of integration emphasize the centrality of theory in scientific endeavors and in the construction of causal models capable of predicting transgression.
Postmodernist forms of integration emphasize the ever-changing voices of plurality that provide meaning for the local sites of crime, justice, law, and community as these are constituted by harmful personal and social relationships Barak, a and b; Henry and Milovanovic, Integrating Bodies of Theory Whether discussing various forms of delinquency integration that hook theories together sequentially Cloward and Ohlin, ; Colvin and Pauly, ; Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton, ; Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard,of learning or reinforcement forms of integration that bring theories together by focusing on a central causal process Glaser, ; Akers, ; Pearson and Weiner,or of macro- and micro-level forms of integration that link theories together by combinations of interdependencies Hagan, ; Kaplan, ; Tatum,these approaches to integration have engaged in three basic types of positivist integration: End-to-end conceptualizations, such as those of mainline delinquency integration tend to give no preference to the various components involved and assume some kind of linear effect is in operation, so that different theorists might order the elements in different sequences Elliott, Ageton, andCantor, ; Johnson, By contrast, side-by-side integrations, provide a firmer basis for the sequencing of theoretical ingredients, in that later outcomes are conditional on earlier outcomes Braithwaite, An integrative paper is a way for a student to show his current opinion regarding a certain subject matter at the present point in time.
The integrative paper should contain the use of the word "I" frequently throughout the writing. Integrative Paper You are required to write a review of John Kotter and Dan Cohen's book, The Heart of Change.
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Integrated lessons are ones that bring in aspects or information from two or more subject areas relating to a learning objective. The goal of all integrated lessons should be to strengthen student.
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