Robert Kennedy's Headwounds, Part 1: The accused assassin sits in jail today, having been convicted of 1st-degree murder by a jury of his peers. Nor has the import of ballistic and medical evidence been litigated, not even at Sirhan's trial during which his legal team arbitrarily stipulated both to the integrity of the physical evidence and the prosecution's version which has Sirhan as the sole assassin.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium.
On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.
Since there doesn't seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.
I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions. Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues.
At the start, let me clarify that my main concern is not the age of the earth, the moon, or the solar system, but rather the age of life, that is, how long has life existed on earth.
Many dating methods seem to give about the same ages on meteorites. Thus radiometric dating methods appear to give evidence that the earth and meteorites are old, if one accepts the fact that decay rates have been constant.
However, there may be other explanations for this apparent age. Perhaps the earth was made from older pre-existing matter, or perhaps decay rates were briefly faster for some reason. When one considers the power of God, one sees that any such conclusions are to some extent tentative.
I believe that life was recently created.
I also believe that the evidence indicates that the earth has recently undergone a violent catastrophe. Geologic time is divided up into periods, beginning with the Precambrian, followed by the Cambrian and a number of others, leading up to the present.
Some fossils are found in Precambrian rocks, but most of them are found in Cambrian and later periods. We can assume that the Precambrian rocks already existed when life began, and so the ages of the Precambrian rocks are not necessarily related to the question of how long life has existed on earth.
The Cambrian period is conventionally assumed to have begun about million years ago. Since Cambrian and later rocks are largely sedimentary and igneous volcanic rocks are found in Cambrian and later strata, if these rocks are really million years old, then life must also be at least million years old.
Therefore, my main concern is with rocks of the Cambrian periods and later. How radiometric dating works in general Radioactive elements decay gradually into other elements.
The original element is called the parent, and the result of the decay process is called the daughter element.is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.
Stability Indicating and Kinetic Determinations of Fluvastatin Sodium by RP-HPLC-DAD Method Kinetic Determination Kinetic investigation of FVS in acidic degradation The kinetics of the acid degradation of FVS were evaluated in M HCl at 70°C for different time periods.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present. By BC, civilizations used technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry.
is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her. Stability Indicating and Kinetic Determinations of Fluvastatin Sodium by RP-HPLC-DAD Method Kinetic Determination Kinetic investigation of FVS in acidic degradation The kinetics of the acid degradation of FVS were evaluated in M HCl at 70°C for different time periods. Different forms of energy are as given below: There are many forms in which energy may be stored or displayed. The steam pressure in the boiler possesses energy because it moves the piston and ultimately does the work in moving the train. Petrol is a source of energy which moves cars at a high speed.
Examples include extracting metals from ores, making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, rendering fat into soap, making. Free Essay: Kinetic Determination Kinetic investigation of FVS in acidic degradation The kinetics of the acid degradation of FVS were evaluated in.
The technical term for the energy associated with motion is kinetic energy, from the Greek word for motion (the root is the same as the root of the word “cinema” for a motion picture, and in French the term for kinetic energy is “énergie cinétique”).
Essay on Kinetic Determinations - Kinetic Determinations The kinetics of the acid degradation of PTV was evaluated in M HCl at 75°C for different time periods. Appropriate aliquot of stock solution of PTV was transferred into a volumetric flask and the volume was completed with M HCl to give a final concentration of µg/ ml PTV.