The Marcus model[ edit ] The consequence of an electron transfer is the rearrangement of charges, and this greatly influences the solvent environment. For the dipolar solvent molecules rearrange in the direction of the field of the charges this is called orientation polarisationand also the atoms and electrons in the solvent molecules are slightly displaced atomic and electron polarization, respectively. It is this solvent polarization which determines the free energy of activation and thus the reaction rate. Substitution, elimination and isomerization reactions differ from the outer sphere redox reaction not only in the structural changes outlined above, but also in the fact that the movements of the nuclei and the shift of charges charge transferCT on the reactions path take place in a continuous and concerted way:
Emotion Emotion is one type of affect, Marcus theory types being mood, temperament and sensation for example, pain. Emotions can be understood as either states or as processes. When understood as a state like being angry or afraidan emotion is a type of mental state that interacts with other mental states and causes certain behaviors.
Understood as a process, it is useful to divide emotion into two parts.
The early part of the emotion process is the interval between the perception of the stimulus and the triggering of the bodily response. The later part of the emotion process is a bodily response, for example, changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and facial expression.
This description is sufficient to begin an analysis of the emotions, although it does leave out some aspects of the process such as the subjective awareness of the emotion and behavior that is often part of the emotion response for example, fighting, running away, hugging another person.
The early part of the process is typically taken to include an evaluation of the stimulus, which means that the occurrence of an emotion depends on how the individual understands or "sees" the stimulus.
For example, one person may respond to being laid-off from a job with anger, while another person responds with joy—it depends on how the individual evaluates this event. Having this evaluative component in the process means that an emotion is not a simple and direct response to a stimulus.
In this way, emotions differ from reflexes such as the startle response or the eye-blink response, which are direct responses to certain kinds of stimuli. The following are some of the features that distinguish emotion from moods. An emotion is a response to a specific stimulus that can be internal, like a belief or a memory.
It is also generally agreed that emotions have intentional content, which is to say that they are about something, often the stimulus itself. Moods, on the other hand, are typically not about anything, and at least some of the time do not appear to be caused by a specific stimulus.
Emotions also have a relatively brief duration—on the order of seconds or minutes—whereas moods last much longer. Most theories agree about these features of the emotions.
Other features will be discussed in the course of this article. There is much less agreement, however, about most of these other features that the emotions may or may not have. Evolutionary Theories The evolutionary approach focuses on the historical setting in which emotions developed.
Typically, the goal is to explain why emotions are present in humans today by referring to natural selection that occurred some time in the past. It will help to begin by clarifying some terminology. Evolution is simply "change over generational time" Brandon,p. Change to a trait can occur because of natural selection, chance, genetic drift, or because the trait is genetically linked with some other trait.
A trait is an adaptation if it is produced by natural selection.
And a trait is the result of natural selection only when "its prevalence is due to the fact that it conferred a greater fitness" Richardson,p. However, a trait can enhance fitness without being an adaptation.Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, B.C.E.
and was murdered on December 7, 43 B.C.E. His life coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, and he was an important actor in many of the significant political events of his time, and his writings are now a valuable source of.
The recurring, tired refrain that we should have a white history month if there is a black history month, or white student unions on campuses, is unintentionally being given new life by the Left. Marcus Theory: Where Did It Come from, and What is It Good For?
Marcus theory Originally introduced by R.
A. Marcus in as a method for calculating rates of electron transfer in outer-sphere processes. It has since been extended and refined significantly to . Marcus evaluated the perturbation theory expression for the transfer rate by calculating Franck-Condon factors for the overlap of donor and acceptor surfaces, in a manner similar to our treatment of the DHO electronic absorption spectrum.
New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
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