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Pakistani intrusion in Kargil reported by local shepherds 5 May Indian Army patrol sent up; Five Indian soldiers captured and tortured to death. Government sets condition for talks with Pakistan 26 July Kargil conflict officially comes to an end.
Indian Army announces complete eviction of Pakistani intruders. There were three major phases to the Kargil War. First, Pakistan infiltrated forces into the Indian-controlled section of Kashmir and occupied strategic locations enabling it to bring NH1 within range of its artillery fire.
The next stage consisted of India discovering the infiltration and mobilising forces to respond to it. The final stage involved major battles by Indian and Pakistani forces resulting in India recapturing most of the territories   held by Pakistani forces and the subsequent withdrawal of Pakistani forces back across the Line of Control after international pressure.
According to some reports, these Pakistani forces were backed by Kashmiri guerrillas and Afghan mercenaries. India discovers infiltration and mobilises Initially, these incursions were not detected for a number of reasons: Indian patrols were not sent into some of the areas infiltrated by the Pakistani forces and heavy artillery fire by Pakistan in some areas provided cover for the infiltrators.
But by the second week of May, the ambushing of an Indian patrol team led by Capt Saurabh Kaliawho acted on a tip-off by a local shepherd in the Batalik sector, led to the exposure of the infiltration.
Subsequent discovery of infiltration elsewhere along the LOC, and the difference in tactics employed by the infiltrators, caused the Indian army to realise that the plan of attack was on a much bigger scale. However, because of the nature of the terrain, division and corps operations could not be mounted; subsequent fighting was conducted mostly at the regimental or battalion level.
In effect, two divisions of the Indian Army,  numbering 20, plus several thousand from the Paramilitary forces of India and the air force were deployed in the conflict zone.
The total number of Indian soldiers that were involved in the military operation on the Kargil-Drass sector was thus close to 30, The number of infiltrators, including those providing logistical backup, has been put at approximately 5, at the height of the conflict. The Indian Air Force launched Operation Safed Sagar in support of the mobilisation of Indian land forces, but its effectiveness during the war was limited by the high altitude and weather conditions, which in turn limited bomb loads and the number of airstrips that could be used.
Naval action The Indian Navy also prepared to blockade the Pakistani ports primarily the Karachi port  to cut off supply routes under Operation Talwar. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message The terrain of Kashmir is mountainous and at high altitudes; even the best roads, such as National Highway 1D from Leh to Srinagar, are only two lanes.
The rough terrain and narrow roads slowed down traffic, and the high altitude, which affected the ability of aircraft to carry loads, made control of NH 1D the actual stretch of the highway which was under Pakistani fire a priority for India.
From their observation poststhe Pakistani forces had a clear line-of-sight to lay down indirect artillery fire on NH 1D, inflicting heavy casualties on the Indians.
Indian soldiers after winning a battle during the Kargil War The infiltrators, apart from being equipped with small arms and grenade launcherswere also armed with mortarsartillery and anti-aircraft guns. Many posts were also heavily minedwith India later stating to have recovered more than 8, anti-personnel mines according to an ICBL report.
The majority of posts along the Line of Control were adjacent to the highway, and therefore the recapture of nearly every infiltrated post increased both the territorial gains and the security of the highway.
The protection of this route and the recapture of the forward posts were thus ongoing objectives throughout the war. Some of the peaks that were of vital strategic importance to the Pakistani defensive troops were Point and Point While was the nearest point that had a view of NH 1D, point was the highest feature in the Dras sector, allowing the Pakistani troops to observe NH 1D.
The Pakistani troops at Tololing were aided by Pakistani fighters from Kashmir. Some of the posts put up a stiff resistance, including Tiger Hill Point that fell only later in the war. Indian troops found well-entrenched Pakistani soldiers at Tiger Hill, and both sides suffered heavy casualties.
After a final assault on the peak in which ten Pakistani soldiers and five Indian soldiers were killed, Tiger Hill finally fell. A few of the assaults occurred atop hitherto unheard of peaks — most of them unnamed with only Point numbers to differentiate them — which witnessed fierce hand to hand combat.
As the operation was fully underway, about artillery guns were brought in to clear the infiltrators in the posts that were in the line-of-sight. The Bofors FHB field howitzer played a vital role, with Indian gunners making maximum use of the terrain.The Newspaper Front Page Student Handout News: The Front Page The following chart is designed to show the differences in approach to the news in three newspapers.
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