Simultaneous perception Amblyopia and Strabismus[ edit ] Amblyopia when the brain never learns how to use an eye, also known as a "lazy eye" is a condition which optometric and ophthalmoligical traditions generally agree upon and both treat similarly. Amblyopia, which can also often lead to eyes which do not attend well to visual targets strabismusa "turned eye" until the brain can learn to use that eye.
Abstract Background The present study investigates two different treatment options for convergence insufficiency CI for a group of children with reading difficulties referred by educational institutes to a specialist eye clinic in Vienna. Methods One hundred and thirty four subjects aged years with reading difficulties were referred from an educational institute in Vienna, Austria for visual assessment.
Thirty two participants refused all treatment offered clinical control group. A full visual assessment including reading speed and accuracy were conducted pre- and post-treatment.
Conclusions Reading difficulties with no apparent intellectual or psychological foundation may be due to a binocular vision anomaly such as convergence insufficiency.
Both the HTS and prismatic correction are highly effective treatment options for convergence insufficiency. Prismatic correction can be considered an effective alternative to HTS.
Background It is well documented that children with reading difficulties are at a greater risk for anomalies of visual function and asthenopic symptoms than their peers without reading difficulties [ 1 - 3 ].
Reading difficulties are significantly related to various aspects of visual function including refractive error and binocular vision status [ 4 - 9 ]. One of the most significant findings was the high proportion of children with reading difficulties who demonstrated convergence insufficiency CI This is a common binocular vision disorder that frequently underpins a wide range of asthenopic symptoms in both adults and children [ 11 - 13 ].
Although a substantial volume of literature that describes various different treatments options for CI exists, progress is hampered by inconsistencies regarding the most appropriate treatment and a paucity of suitable treatment options for children with reading difficulties [ 14 - 17 ].
Evaluation of the use of base-in prism spectacles for CI is also limited [ 1819 ]. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no controlled studies linking CI and reading difficulties have been undertaken on large European populations and certainly no previous studies have been conducted on Austrian school children.
The Austrian approach to detecting, evaluating and treating reading, writing and other learning difficulties is holistic. Children in Austria undergo regular health examinations and those who have difficulties with reading and writing are referred routinely by their teacher or parent to educational institutions for an assessment of their academic status.
A range of standardised tests are conducted by educational psychologists to determine the cause s that may impede learning. The tests include intelligence assessments to investigate whether the difficulties arise from a reduced level of intelligence low IQ or whether there are any other underlying factors.
A significant proportion of these children are found to have a normal or above normal level of intellectual ability despite their reading and writing difficulties.
These particular children are all referred to a single specialist clinician WD for a full assessment of visual status.
Given that over a quarter of the Austrian population resides in Vienna and that this specialist clinic also accepts referrals from other regions of Austria, the database of children examined in this clinic is representative of the country as a whole and is characteristic of a European population of school children.
Procainamide Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of Procainamide hydrochloride in water for injection. Each milliliter of the 2 mL vial contains Procainamide hydrochloride mg; methylparaben 1 mg and sodium metabisulfite mg added in water for injection. Dobutamine in the Treatment of Haemodynamic Insufficiency in the Immediate Postnatal Period (NeoCirc) The safety and scientific validity of this study is . Introduction. According to the definition by the American Optometric Association, accommodative insufficiency (AI) is a type of accommodative dysfunction in which the amplitude of accommodation (AA) is lower than the age-expected norm for an individual and is not due to sclerosis of the crystalline lens. 1 AI is in fact a sensory motor anomaly of the visual system, and the main feature is the.
The present study is the first controlled study on a large homogenous European population examined by a single specialist. It investigates two different treatment options for CI for a group of children with reading difficulties referred by the aforementioned educational institutes to the specialist eye clinic in Vienna.
Methods Subjects Initially subjects were referred from three educational institutes in Vienna, Austria diagnosed with difficulties in reading and writing that could not be attributed to a learning difficulty. All subjects had been assessed by an educational psychologist and had an IQ intelligence quotient over Subjects with ocular pathology e.Neurophysiological studies showed low amplitude compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) and sensory action potentials (SAP) with only slight reduction of nerve conduction velocity in affected patients: these data confirm an axonal polyneuropathy.
Symptoms of brainstem stroke. Clinically, in localizing strokes to the brainstem one looks for the "cardinal" feature of an ipsilateral peripheral cranial nerve involvement, and a .
OCULAR ACCOMMODATION Studies of amplitude, insufficiency, and facility training in young school children Bertil Sterner Department of Ophthalmology. Genetics PMP Gene mutation types Duplication of one PMP gene (3 total copies of PMP): Types.
Segmental duplication in gene area. Due to unequal crossing over of chromosomes during meiosis; Trisomy of short arm on chromosome 17 (17p): Mosaic.
scope designation: outer diameter [mm] working length [cm] suction channel [mm] smallest endotracheal tube size (tube sizes are the smallest possible with each instrument.
General features of myotonia. Clinical: Delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle following voluntary contraction Present with initial activity Usually abates after repeated muscle activity.